The spiritual world view in ancient Egypt is shaped by several gods. Among them is also the god Toth, who is considered the predecessor of Hermes and thus occupies a central position as a pioneer of hermeticism. The ritualism is also an important part of Egyptian culture and was celebrated by high priests (Egyptian Gods).
Egyptian Gods – The spiritual world of the ancient Egyptians is characterized by many gods. They represented all aspects of life and had primarily the body form of various beings – partly human, partly animal. Animals were associated with certain attributes. Thus the Egyptian high priests did not believe that their gods were animal beings or earthly beings with animal qualities. Much more, these representations symbolized forms for the power behind them. Neither did they worship the material sun, but the being that animates the sun. Likewise, people are more than just their physical body.
Amon (Amun) who had a feather crown was originally a god of wind and fertility. The jackal-headed Anubis (Anpu) was jointly responsible for the death rites and mummification. Anubis is also a manifestation of Horus and Osiris. The snake Apophis is considered an enemy of the sun god Re, who threatens the sun Braque of Re at sunrise and sunset. He is the god of dissolution and darkness. The sun-shaped Aton, which has rays of hands, is a special manifestation of the god Re. The Pharaoh Akhenaton depicts Aton as the highest monotheistic god. Atum (Tem) wears a double crown and is the Creator God and Primordial God, who is the manifestation of the God Re in the evening. Atum created himself. The cat-headed Bastet is a protective goddess as well as a goddess of joys and daughter of Re (Egyptian Gods).
The dwarf-like Bes is a guardian god of the night, especially for the house and against dangerous animals. The scarab-headed Chepre is the manifestation of the god Re at sunrise and in the morning. He is also the God of rebirth and creation. The ram-headed Chnum (Chenemu) is regarded as a creator god who creates and shapes man on a potter’s wheel. The falcon-headed Chon with a moon crown is a moon god and is regarded as a wanderer of heaven. He is the son of the god Amun and the goddess of heaven Mut. The God Geb carries a goose on his head and is the God of the earth and everything that emerges from it. He is the son of Shou and Tefnut. The god Hapi is wearing papyrus or lotus blossoms on his head. As the god of the Nile flood, he is associated with fertility. The falcon-headed Haroeris (later equivalent to “Horus”) is a heavenly god and helmsman of the barque of Re.
The goddess Hathor has a crown of cow horns and a moon disk. She is a mother goddess and (the) goddess of love and beauty. The goddess Isis has a crown of cow horns and a sun disk. She is the wife of Osiris, mother goddess and goddess of birth, rebirth and magic. The goddess Maat wears a crown with an ostrich feather and is goddess of truth and justice. She is (the) daughter of Re. The god Min has an erect penis, a feather crown and carries a hostage. He is the god of fertility and procreation. The goddess Mut wears a vulture cap and double crown. She is a protective goddess and, like Isis or Hathor, the symbolic mother of Pharaoh. The war goddess Neith wears a crown and has bow and arrow in her hand. She is considered the creator goddess, war goddess and goddess of the dead. The goddess Nephthys is the twin sister of Isis. She protects the dead and is also the goddess of birth.
The sky goddess Nut is shown bent like a sky tent. In the evening she swallows the sun and gives birth to the stars. In the morning she gives birth to the sun again. She is the goddess of the firmament. Osiris, the mummy-like god of the dead, is associated with rebirth, fertility and eternal life. The mummified main creator god Ptah created the world with his word. He is considered the patron of crafts and the arts. The falcon-headed sun god Re (Ra) has a sun disk as a crown and preserves life. He is ruler and guardian of the created world. The lion-headed Sachmet (Sekhmet) is responsible for war, illness and healing. The god Shou (Shoo) has a feather on his head and is considered the god of life, air and sunlight. He represents the space between heaven and earth. The goddess Selket carries a scorpion on her head and rules over magic and medicine.
The god Seth has the head of a mythical creature and is considered a desert god, god of storms and thunderstorms. He is the son of Nut and Geb. He is on one hand a god of protection and on the other hand a god of destruction. The crocodile-headed Sobek is a fertility god and god of water. The lion-headed Tefnut is the god of fire. The ibis-headed Thot is God of the moon, the calendar, scholar, wisdom and scribe.
An important ritual of the ancient Egyptians was the spiritual offering, which took place mainly in the form of animal slaughtering or festivals. The caste of priests celebrated mystical rituals of transition in consecrated pyramids and temples, the Osiris ritual being one of the most central. Every high priest went through this ritual of death and resurrection. The pharaoh was the supreme head of the earthly and spiritual and embodied the divine on earth. Through the initiation ritual he received the higher consciousness or divine consciousness. After death, every pharaoh was worshipped as a god and was immortalized in the form of Horus.
In the view of the ancient Egyptians, the world initially consisted of water until the primeval hill appeared on which Re (Ra), the sun god, was born. He had four children who had all retreated and became invisible when the humans appeared.
In addition, the Egyptians believed in life after death. Ammit ate the hearts of the condemned dead, Anubis prepared man for the realm of the dead, and Thoth, God of science, wisdom, and magic, played an important role. Especially Thot is essential for hermeticism, since he is considered the predecessor of the Greek god “Hermes”, on whom the term “hermeticism” can be traced back. Practical work with symbols plays an important role in the courses of the Hermetic Academy.